Hollywood History 1900 - 1910


20th Century By the beginning of the 20th century, Hollywood was really beginning to grow. More and more people were settleing in Hollywood which increased business and trade for the burgeoning community. It would still be ten years before the motion picture industry discovered Hollywood, but when it did, the growth was explosive. Beginning of Tourism The forerunner of sightseeing in Hollywood was established in 1900 by Charles W. Pierce, who operated a coach service with which he met tourist at the Hollywood streetcar depot and took them on a guided tour of the area, to the Glen Holly Hotel for lunch, then back to the depot. Pierce later began the Balloon Route Excursions, operated by the Los Angeles Pacific Railroad. The trolley route, when placed on a map, made the outline of a balloon. Eighteen carloads daily operated at the height of its popularity. The streetcars’ first stop after leaving the Hill Street Station in Los Angeles was Paul DeLongpre’s home. Here the tourist could visit with the world-renowned artist and stroll through his studio and colorful floral gardens. The excursion continued to the Soldiers’ Home in Sawtelle, where the passengers’ picture was taken in the dining hall steps. The photographer then rode downtown on a regular car, developed the negative and printed copies of his photos and got back on another regular car to meet the excursion, where he reboarded and sold his photos. The balloon-route cars then went to Santa Monica, Playa del Rey for a fish dinner. Moonstone Beach in Redondo, to Venice to see the canals, then made a fast run back to Los Angeles, via Palms. The Pacific Electric Railroad took over the Los Angeles Pacific in 1911 and assumed management of the Balloon Route Excursions. Pierce, though, remained in the sight-seeing business, using automobiles and finally airplanes. Subdividers In 1901, the Los Angeles Pacific Boulevard and Development Company was incorporated. Among the many investors were Harrison Gray Otis, editor of the Los Angeles Times, H.J. Whitley and George W. Hoover. The company purchased the land north of Prospect Avenue in an area basically between Cahuenga Avenue and La Brea Avenue and laid out the Hollywood Ocean View Tract. The more level area was graded and the streets, which were much as they remain today, were finished with concrete curbs, water mains, gutters and sidewalks. Highland Avenue was zoned for business on the west side from 150 feet north of Prospect to Franklin Avenue, and on the east side, from 198 feet north of Prospect Avenue to Yucca. Prospect Avenue was residential zoning for the length of the tract. There were to be no multiple dwellings, no dwelling could cost less than $3000, and no liquor could be sold in the tact. The site of the first unit of the Hollywood Hotel at the north west corner of Prospect Ave and Highland Avenue was given to Mr. George W. Hoover, while the site on the northeast corner went to the Bank of Hollywood. Mr. Hoover started the hotel immediately. Shortly after the bank was incorporated, a brick building was constructed on the site. Whitley Heights and Valentino The property north of Franklin Avenue just east of Highland Avenue was given to H. J. Whitley to development into a residential tract. This he did with great success and the development has ever since been called Whitley Heights. One of the most illustrious residents of this area was the silent screen actor Rudolph Valentino. In 1924, he purchased his Whitley Heights home, located at 6776 Wedgewood Place, where he lived with his second wife, Natacha Rambova. When the Valentinos moved in, there was much work to be done in decorating and furnishing the home. The furniture and art treasures they bought in Europe and New York had to be worked into the house decor or placed in storage. Lavishly decorated “palaces” were becoming commonplace among Hollywood’s big stars, and the Valentinos were not to be outdone. After lining in the house for about a year, Mrs. Valentino wished to move into a more fashionable district of Beverly Hills, where they could be surrounded by the stars of Rudy’s caliber. In 1925, they moved from Whitley Heights after purchasing a large Mediterranean-style house that Valentino named “Falcon Lair” Hollywood Hotel The first forty-room unit of the Hollywood Hotel, on the northwest corner of Prospect and Highland Avenues, was completed in February 1930. Construction of an additional 104 rooms continued for the next three years and in 1907, the hotel was sold to Myra Hershey of the Pennsylvania chocolate family. As the film colony grew during the ensuing years, the hotel became the social center of Hollywood. Stars of the silent films romped and romanced in the Dining Room of the Stars. The hotel register listed such luminaries as Dustin and William Farnum, Douglas Fairbanks, Anita Stewart, Lon Chaney, Pola Negri, Norma Shearer, and scores of others. Rudolph Valentino had to show his marriage license before he could carry his bride, Jean Acker, to their honeymoon chamber at the hotel. Many of the great silent stars made their home at the hotel and attended the weekly Thursday dances held in the crystal-chandeliered ballroom. Gold stars painted on the ceiling designated celebrities who dined regularly. Carrie Jacobs Bond wrote her famous song, “The End if a Perfect Day”, at the Hollywood Hotel in 1909. The hotel became almost a national shrine when Louella Parsons put film stars on the radio and announced,”This is Louella Parsons broadcasting fro the Hollywood Hotel.” Celebrities from all over the country arrived in 1938 to attend a gala party to celebrate the thirty-fifth anniversary of the world-famous hotel, which finally fell to the wreckers’ ball in 1956. Two Business Centers While the Los Angeles Pacific Boulevard Development Company was promoting their development, at the west end of Prospect Avenue, Mrs. Daeida Wilcox Beveridge was actively building a business center at Prospect and Cahuenga Avenues. Thus the village was divided into two ambitious business centers connected by a strip of a half mile territory through which ran the only common carrier of the town, the streetcar. Masons Form On January 8, 1903, several Masons met of the purpose of forming a new Masonic Lodge. The first regular meeting was held on May 1, 1903 at the southwest corner of Sunset Blvd. and Cahuenga Avenue, above Drouet’s harness shop and home. It was there that the first initiations took place. During the following year, more suitable quarters were furnished on the west side of Highland Avenue, in the block north of Prospect Avenue, in a building known as Masonic Hall, which consisted of an auditorium and two stores. By 1905, the lodge had fifty-seven members. In 1922, a beautiful, classic Masonic Temple was built at 6940 Hollywood Boulevard, facing Orchid Ave., at a cost of $250,000. Hollywood Becomes A City The United States government recognized the existence o Hollywood in November 1897 by establishing a post office in the Sackett Hotel, with Lineaus Matthews as postmaster. Over the next six years, the village of Hollywood was faced with three pressing problems that the Cahuenga Valley Improvement Association, organized in 1895, seemed incapable of solving. Hollywood streets were not getting the attention in proportion to the tax levied by the county on Hollywood property; a lack of school facilities; and a growing sentiment for prohibition. The Hollywood Board of Trade was formed in June 1903 to supersede the improvement association, and at the following month’s meeting it was suggested that many of the community’s problems could be solved by incorporating as a city. Debate was lengthy and heated. The probable cost of city government divided the village, with Harvey Wilcox’s widow &emdash; now Mrs. Philo Beveridge &emdash; and a large following opposed the idea. A poll showed a majority favoring the plan, though, and in August 1903, a petition was submitted to the Los Angeles Board of Supervisors requesting the incorporation of the City of Hollywood. Sixty-two voters, of the estimated area population of 700, had signed the petition. The election was held on November 14, 1903, at the Pass School. Balloting began at 6:00 A.M. and was brisk until midmorning. Outlying farmers straggled in throughout the rest of the day to cast their ballots until the polls closed at 5:00 P.M. At the count, proponents and opponents eyed each other across the crowed room. The first three ballots were against incorporation. The next was for it, then two more against, and so on until 126 ballots had been counted and the opponents’ majority of thirteen was reflected in their happy faces. The 127th ballot was in favor. The final tally showed eighty-eight for incorporation and seventy-seven against. So Hollywood was a city of the sixth class with corporate geographic limits extending from Normandie Avenue on the east, to Fairfax Avenue on the west, and from the top of the Santa Monica Mountains on the north, to DeLongpre and Fountain avenues on the south. After annexation to Los Angeles in 1910, Hollywood retained essentially the same boundaries, but in 1937, for reasons never adequately explained, the Los Angeles City Council passed Ordnance 78,499, officially establishing Hollywood boundaries as Doheny Drive on the west, the top of the Santa Monica Mountains on the north, the Los Angeles River on the east and Melrose in the south, a too generous description shrugged off by many as a typical bureaucratic aberration. Street numbers came to Hollywood when the Los Angeles Gas Company installed the new city’s firs gas meters in 1904. Distances between houses were measured by a bicycle with a rag tied around he tire, and, for identification, the houses were given numbers, numbering in four directions, beginning with 100, from Prospect and Cahuenga avenues. During the first year of incorporation, the eight member Hollywood Board of Trustees was busy doing as all governments feel they must &emdash; passing laws. Immediately enacted were city ordinances creating numerous crimes. Prohibiting the sale of liquor except by pharmacist or prescription. Prohibiting the riding of bicycles, tricycles, or velocipedes on sidewalks &emdash; particularly Mr. Whitley’s and Mr. Beveridge’s sidewalks, which were the only ones in town at the time. Outlawing the driving of horses, cattle or mules through the streets of Hollywood and bands or herds of more than 200, or more than 2000 sheep, goats or hogs, unless accompanied by competent men in charge. Prohibiting the operation or maintenance of slot machines, card machines, or other mechanical devices in the city of Hollywood, for money or other articles of value, depending on chance or hazard. Prohibiting drunkenness, disorderly conduct, and keeping of disorderly houses and prescribing punishment. Prohibiting slaughterhouses, glue factory, gas works, soap factory, sanitarium, tannery, smelting works, oil well, or oil refinery within the city limits of Hollywood; shoddy machines, carpet beating works, laundries, planing mills, lumber yards, factories, or places of business where steam is supplied to machinery within 100 feet of any dwelling, residence, church, or school, or lumber yard or place where steam is applied to machinery within 300 feet of school grounds. Billiard rooms, pool rooms, bowling alleys. shooting galleries required to be closed from 11)) P.M. to 7:00 A.M. and 11:00 P.M. Saturday to 7:00 A.M. on Monday. Patrons under twenty-one years of age were not permitted. Violation, a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of $100 or less, or thirty days or less in the county jail. Hollywood’s Growth Arrangements were made with the county to board prisioners in its jail, and on the city hall lot, on the west side of Cahuenga Avenue, just south of Prospect Avenue, a 6 X6X10 ffoot concrete box with barred openings and an iron door was built for overnight detention, but only an occasional drunk ever saw it from the inside. Three years after Hollywood became a city, the Hollywood Cemetery Association was formed. Against the loud and legal protests of the neighboring property owmers, the association purchased a large tract of land at the southwest corner of Gower Street and Santa Monica Boulevard, and there established the Hollywood Cemetery. The first to be buried there was Mrs. T.W. Price, the wife of the village smith. Later, it became the final resting place for many hollywood celebrities, including Rudolph Valentino. At about the time of Hollywood’s incorporation, the Union Rock Company established a quarry in Brush Canyon, two miles north of Franklin Avenue at the northern end of Bronson Avenue for use in railroad ballast and street surfaces. Many Hollywood residents complained vociferously that the trucks tore up the newly paved streets and jarred their homes as they passed in the night, so a rail line was established that operated during he restricted hours of the morning and evening. But by 1918, it had become more economical and practical to haul the rock by truck, so the railroad spur was discontinued. As a result of the complaints from homeowners on Bronson Avenue and the diminishing need for porphyry, the quarry ceased operation in the late 1920s. The caves, now known as Bronson Caves, which were carved into the hills by the old quarry, have been and still are used by countless motion picture production companies as location for westernsm science fiction, and adventure films. To the chagrin of the Bronson Avenue residents, the rock trucks have been replaced by mobile studio trucks and equipment. More Schools The graduates of Cahuenga Valley grammar schools went to Los Angeles High School or Santa Monica High School at hteir own expense. Hollywood Union High School District was formed in 1903, uniting the Cahuenga, Laurel, Coldwater, Sherman, Los Feliz, Lankersheim and Pass grammar school districts. In September, the Hollywood Union High School opened in temporarly quarters in one of the storage rooms on the gound floor of the neew Masonic Temple located on the west side of Highland Avenue, north of Prospect Avenue. Thirty pupils`were enrolled in the school, which had James O. Churchill as its first principal. By spring, there were fifty and before the close of the first year, severny-five were in attendance. The cornerstone of Hollywood Union High School, which later dropped the word Union, was laid at the corner of Sunset Blvd. and Highland Ave. on November 23, 1904. Students tethered their horses on what is no the athletic field, and a lemon grove on the west side of the school provided quite a different aroma from that created by today’s Sunset Boulevard traffic. Grant School and Fremont School, now Selma Avenue School, began construction while Hollywood High School was being built and as Hollywood’s population grew, these grammar schools expanded. Three months after Los Angeles took Hollywood under its wing, the Gardner Street School was established at the southeast corner of Gardneer and Hawthorne avenues. Private schools also helped lift the burden from public education. In April 1905, the Sisters of Immaculate Heart of Mary broke ground in a mustard field at Western and Franklin Avenues, for a motherhouse, novitiate, and girls’ high school. The three story building, which included classrooms and a dormitory, as of Mission-Moorish design with a rd roof, arched porticos, and gleaming gold crosses. The school became and immediate success, drawing students from all over Southern California as well as some foreign countries, In 1908, Immiculate Heart High Schoold became the first private school in Southern California to receive cooege accreditation, ans since its founding, the school and grauated more than 6000 students. Another fine private school was he Hollywood School for Girls, located at 1749 North La Brea Avenue. Founded in 1909, the school achieved a high academic standing in the college preparitory work, registering as many as 225 students. Among its illustrious students were Misses Agnes DeMille, Katherine DeMille, Harlean Carpenter (later Jean Harlow), Dorothy Sills, Catherine Toberman and Mrs. David Selznick. Tilting Tournaments and Libraries Hollywood’s first annual Tilting Tournament and Floral Parade was held in 1907, sponsored by the two year old Hollywood Club, which had already become the center of the city’s social activity. The tournament began at noon on April 20th, when a parade of flower-decked horse and motor vehicles, flanked by horses carrying brightly costumed riders, made its way down Hollywood Boulevard. The boulevard was lined with people along the entire parade route from Highland Avenue to Cahuenga Avenue. At Cahuenga, a large grandstand faced a judging stand situated across the street. Between the stands was a row of three posts, each with a cross arm from which hung a large white harness ring. Fighting to keep their fourteen-foot lances level, riders grouped their horses across from the Hollywood Club, and, as the judges gave the word, dashed over the course, attempting to spear the rings with their unwieldy lances. The rider capturing the most rings in three rides was the winner, who chose his partner to lead the grand March at a ball later that evening. The Women’s Club of Hollywood The Women’s Club of Hollywood was also organized in 1905, but set its cultural sights a bit higher. Its constitutional purpose was to be “the upbuilding of the social, intellectual, and civic life and the establishing of a public library in the city of Hollywood.” The library committee immediately began working to raise funds and solicit donations of books. A book reception at the Hollywood Hotel netted 203 books and fifteen dollars. A baseball game the following month between the Hollywood merchants and real estate men netted $59.50. Over the next few months other events increased the books and the capital fund of the library. Temporary facilities were rented and furnished on Cahuenga Avenue, just south of Hollywood Boulevard, and the Hollywood Public Library opened its doors on February 8, 1906. The Women’s Club then procured a $10,000 donation from Andrew Carnegie for the construction of a library building, raised an additional $5,000 by public subscription, and began construction of a single story English bungalow-style library on the northwest corner of Prospect Avenue and Ivar. The library opened on April, 1907 , and within four years, boasted of 3,798 cardholders. Fifteen years later, the library was faced with the problem of not having enough room to accommodate the growing number of books and cardholders. The old library building was moved to West Hollywood and a modern Spanish-style facility was erected in its place. This building served the Hollywood community well until the library moved, in 1940, to the present location at 1623 Ivar Avenue. The Women’s Club, which contributed so much to Hollywood’s library, didn’t have its own building until 1915. The women built a clubhouse on the southeast corner of Hollywood Blvd. and La Brea Ave. which served until 1949 when the present clubhouse was christened at 1749 North La Brea. Ave. Colegrove, the area directly south of Hollywood, was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909, so that the village could share in the benefits of the outfall sewer and the water supply from the Owens River Aqueduct then under construction. Hollywood thus became bounded on the south by Los Angeles. Ever since incorporation in 1903, Hollywood had struggled for an adequate water supply, but annexation talk at the time was vigorously opposed by the Los Angeles Water Board because of the extra water burden. Hollywood had successfully drilled for water at Las Palmas and Franklin Avenues, at Selma and Hudson and at Sunset Blvd. and Western Avenue. But the water supply was insufficient for continued growth. In 1907, William Mulholland and his Los Angeles city water system engineers outlined a proposal to bring water 250 miles from the Owens River Valley in the north. Los Angeles citizens voted the necessary bonds in two elections, even though the cost would be $24,500,000. Work was started in 1908. Water seemed assured and Los Angeles’ attitude tow annexation changed. Nearby densely populated county territories hasten to merge with the growing metropolis. Colegrove, the area directly south of Hollywood, was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909, so that the village could share in the benefits of the outfall sewer and the water supply from the Owens River Aqueduct then under construction. Hollywood thus became bounded on the south by Los Angeles. Ever since incorporation in 1903, Hollywood had struggled for an adequate water supply, but annexation talk at the time was vigorously opposed by the Los Angeles Water Board because of the extra water burden. Hollywood had successfully drilled for water at Las Palmas and Franklin Avenues, at Selma and Hudson and at Sunset Blvd. and Western Avenue. But the water supply was insufficient for continued growth. In 1907, William Mulholland and his Los Angeles city water system engineers outlined a proposal to bring water 250 miles from the Owens River Valley in the north. Los Angeles citizens voted the necessary bonds in two elections, even though the cost would be $24,500,000. Work was started in 1908. Water seemed assured and Los Angeles’ attitude tow annexation changed. Nearby densely populated county territories hasten to merge with the growing metropolis. Colegrove, the area directly south of Hollywood, was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909, so that the village could share in the benefits of the outfall sewer and the water supply from the Owens River Aqueduct then under construction. Hollywood thus became bounded on the south by Los Angeles. Ever since incorporation in 1903, Hollywood had struggled for an adequate water supply, but annexation talk at the time was vigorously opposed by the Los Angeles Water Board because of the extra water burden. Hollywood had successfully drilled for water at Las Palmas and Franklin Avenues, at Selma and Hudson and at Sunset Blvd. and Western Avenue. But the water supply was insufficient for continued growth. In 1907, William Mulholland and his Los Angeles city water system engineers outlined a proposal to bring water 250 miles from the Owens River Valley in the north. Los Angeles citizens voted the necessary bonds in two elections, even though the cost would be $24,500,000. Work was started in 1908. Water seemed assured and Los Angeles’ attitude tow annexation changed. Nearby densely populated county territories hasten to merge with the growing metropolis. Tilting Tournaments and Libraries Hollywood’s first annual Tilting Tournament and Floral Parade was held in 1907, sponsored by the two year old Hollywood Club, which had already become the center of the city’s social activity. The tournament began at noon on April 20th, when a parade of flower-decked horse and motor vehicles, flanked by horses carrying brightly costumed riders, made its way down Hollywood Boulevard. The boulevard was lined with people along the entire parade route from Highland Avenue to Cahuenga Avenue. At Cahuenga, a large grandstand faced a judging stand situated across the street. Between the stands was a row of three posts, each with a cross arm from which hung a large white harness ring. Fighting to keep their fourteen-foot lances level, riders grouped their horses across from the Hollywood Club, and, as the judges gave the word, dashed over the course, attempting to spear the rings with their unwieldy lances. The rider capturing the most rings in three rides was the winner, who chose his partner to lead the grand March at a ball later that evening. The Women’s Club of Hollywood The Women’s Club of Hollywood was also organized in 1905, but set its cultural sights a bit higher. Its constitutional purpose was to be “the upbuilding of the social, intellectual, and civic life and the establishing of a public library in the city of Hollywood.” The library committee immediately began working to raise funds and solicit donations of books. A book reception at the Hollywood Hotel netted 203 books and fifteen dollars. A baseball game the following month between the Hollywood merchants and real estate men netted $59.50. Over the next few months other events increased the books and the capital fund of the library. Temporary facilities were rented and furnished on Cahuenga Avenue, just south of Hollywood Boulevard, and the Hollywood Public Library opened its doors on February 8, 1906. The Women’s Club then procured a $10,000 donation from Andrew Carnegie for the construction of a library building, raised an additional $5,000 by public subscription, and began construction of a single story English bungalow-style library on the northwest corner of Prospect Avenue and Ivar. The library opened on April, 1907 , and within four years, boasted of 3,798 cardholders. Fifteen years later, the library was faced with the problem of not having enough room to accommodate the growing number of books and cardholders. The old library building was moved to West Hollywood and a modern Spanish-style facility was erected in its place. This building served the Hollywood community well until the library moved, in 1940, to the present location at 1623 Ivar Avenue. The Women’s Club, which contributed so much to Hollywood’s library, didn’t have its own building until 1915. The women built a clubhouse on the southeast corner of Hollywood Blvd. and La Brea Ave. which served until 1949 when the present clubhouse was christened at 1749 North La Brea. Ave. Colegrove, the area directly south of Hollywood, was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909, so that the village could share in the benefits of the outfall sewer and the water supply from the Owens River Aqueduct then under construction. Hollywood thus became bounded on the south by Los Angeles. Ever since incorporation in 1903, Hollywood had struggled for an adequate water supply, but annexation talk at the time was vigorously opposed by the Los Angeles Water Board because of the extra water burden. Hollywood had successfully drilled for water at Las Palmas and Franklin Avenues, at Selma and Hudson and at Sunset Blvd. and Western Avenue. But the water supply was insufficient for continued growth. In 1907, William Mulholland and his Los Angeles city water system engineers outlined a proposal to bring water 250 miles from the Owens River Valley in the north. Los Angeles citizens voted the necessary bonds in two elections, even though the cost would be $24,500,000. Work was started in 1908. Water seemed assured and Los Angeles’ attitude tow annexation changed. Nearby densely populated county territories hasten to merge with the growing metropolis. Annexation Hollywood’s population also had grown too dense to depend on cesspools. Surrounding areas were too valuable for sewer farms or septic tanks, and the distance to the sea was too great to consider the cost of an outfall sewer. Annexation to Los Angeles would assure water and adequate drainage through the city’s outfall sewer. The election was held in 1910. It was an overwhelming victory for annexation. The last official act of Hollywood’s Board of Trustees was to change the name of Prospect Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard. At about the same time, many of the other streets were renamed in honor of some of the early settlers. Hollywood’s street numbers now had to be changed. Prior to annexation, all street numbers in Hollywood began with 100 running in four compass points from the intersection of Prospect and Cahuenga Avenues. After annexation, the 100 block of Cahuenga became the 1700 block and the 100 block of Hollywood Boulevard became the 6400 block. Tunnel Day On September 23, 1909, just a few weeks before Hollywood was annexed to Los Angeles, Hollywood celebrated Tunnel Day. Until then, the Pacific Electric car line between Hollywood and Los Angeles followed Sunset Boulevard to the Plaza, south of Spring Street to the retail business center at Seventh Street. Due largely to the efforts of the board of trade, the railroad company was at last induced to construct the Hill Street Tunnel, which reduced the time to Hollywood by twelve minutes. The ribbon was cut and the car arrived in Hollywood at 1:00 P.M., where it found the boulevard in bunting, and home of Paul DeLongpre profusely decorated with flags, flowers, and committees of the women’s club and the board of trade in the receiving line. The showplaces of the city kept open house, and cars manned by citizens carried the guests to points of interest &emdash; the outpost of General Otis, Laughlin Park with its wealth of exotic plants, bananas, and graceful palms. Sturdevant’s water lilies; Rapp’s pineapple orchard; Glen Holly’s rose gardens; Whitley Heights with its panorama of the city and sea; and the winding lanes of Laurel Canyon. Cars from Los Angeles arrived every five minutes from 1:00 Twelve minutes cut from the time to Los Angeles proved to be a great boon to Hollywood. P.M. to 5:00 P.M. Fire Department Prior to annexation, all firefighting had been performed by volunteer firemen, who drove and operated horse-drawn fire equipment. Shortly after Hollywood was annexed to Los Angeles in 1910, the city established a firehouse, known as Hose Company #7, at the southeast corner of Cahuenga and Selma Avenues. Under the command of Chief Jack Atwell, the small station housed the first motorized piece of firefighting apparatus in he city of Los Angeles. In 1914, the city built a combination police and fire station located at 1625-29 Cahuenga Avenue. When Hose Company #7 moved to the new location, its designation was changed to Engine Company No. 27. At the same time, additional firefighting apparatus was acquired. Firefighters called this home until 1930, when they and the police department moved to new and separate locations. Beautiful Residences By now, Hollywood had become famous from coast to coast for its beautiful hillside homes and it soon to boast of four more architectural treasures. The first of these was Glengarry Castle, built in 1909 at the northeast corner of Franklin Ave and Argyle by a retired Chicago doctor, A. G. Schloesser. The mansion was reminiscent of Glengarry Castle in Scotland and Nuremberg Castle in Germany. Dr. Schloesser built another hillside mansion three years later just across Argyle from Glengarry Castle. He called Sans Souci Castle and it suggested the German Rhine castles and the gothic halls of baronial England. The third hillside mansion was built by Rollin B. Lane on Franklin Avenue at the head of Orange Dr. and christened Holly Chateau by Mrs. Lane. The three story, seventeen room home was designed in Victorian style on the outside and a variety of styles inside. The Lanes lived in the house until the died. Eventually it was sold to Mr. Thomas Glover who leased it to Bill and Milt Larson, who restored and remodeled it and resurrected the mansion as the Magic Castle, a private club whose members now include a thousand magicians. Adolph and Eugene Bernheimer, leading New York importers of oriental goods, arrived in Hollywood in 1980 and bought seven acres on the crest of a high hill behind the Lane mansion, where they built a home reminiscent of the mansion of lordly Japanese rulers. The Bernheimer Palace on the hill &emdash; Yamashiro &emdash; was completed in 1914. Adolph sold the house in 1923, after his brother died. Over the next twenty years the property passed through several hands, declining to a state of disrepair until Tom Glover Sr. acquired it all in 1949. Glover en=embarked on an extensive restoration program, which when completed, allowed the public to enjoy the original beauty of the palace and beautifully manicured gardens. During the past twenty years, the Yamashiro has been the backdrop for such films and television productions as Sayonara, Hollywood Backstage and I Spy. Today it is operated as a restaurant, offering with its cuisine a breathtaking panoramic view of Hollywood., Another famous residence was purchased by Herman Janes, who came to Hollywood in 1903 with his wife, Mary, and their four children, Grace, Mabel, Carrie and Donald. They bought one of H.J. Whitley’s newly constructed home at 6541 Hollywood Blvd., where, in 1911, Mrs. Janes assisted her three daughters in starting the Misses Janes School. Over the next fifteen years, more than a thousand children got at least part of their elementary education there. The roll call of Misses Janes School included the children of many stage and screen celebrities such as C. B. DeMille, Jesse Lasky, Thomas Ince, Noah Berry, Jack Holt, and Richard Arlen. The Janes house stands today, however, all the Janes daughters and son have passed away. The structure is the oldest standing single family residence between La Brea Ave. and Gower St. Mr. Hollywood One of Hollywood’s most prominent pioneers and citizens was Charles Edward Toberman. Born in Seymour, Texas, on February 23, 1880, he was educated at Texas A & M College and Metropolitan Business College. Five years after to his marriage to Josephine Bullock on March 15, 1902, they moved to Hollywood, where his uncle and former mayor of Los Angeles, James R. Toberman, resided. Shortly thereafter, Mr. Toberman went into the real estate and insurance business with B. C. Edwards. Two months later, the partnership was dissolved and Mr. Toberman formed the C.E. Toberman Company, which immediately acquired a 10 X 10 foot wooden building for $100 at the southwest corner of Hollywood Blvd. and Dakota St. (now McCadden Pl.). Later, he built a 15 X 20 foot brick building just west of his former wooden building. This marked the beginning of a long and very successful business career for the man who, years later, became known as “Mr. Hollywood.” During the next seventy-five years, Mr. Toberman placed fifty-three Hollywood Subdivisions on the market, formed more than thirty companies and organizations, built twenty nine commercial buildings in Hollywood, including the world-famous Chinese Theater, Egyptian Theater, Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and was affiliated with forty nine clubs, civic and fraternal organizations. His passion was business and making deals. He passed away on November 10, 1981 at the age of one hundred and one years of age. He was my grandfather. Laurel Canyon Shortly after Hollywood was annexed to the city of Los Angeles in 1910, the Laurel Canyon area began to experience some popularity because of its natural scenic beauty. Hundreds of visitors a week travelled up the canyon on a two-mile long, graded dirt road, later named Laurel Canyon Boulevard. Built by unemployed workers in 1907 at a cost of $10,000, the road ran up the canyon where it divided at what is now Lookout Mountain Avenue. The left road twisted its way up to the summit of Lookout Mountain, while the other continued to the top of the Santa Monica Mountains and down to the San Fernando Valley. In 1908, the Lookout Mountain Park Land and Water Company was formed to purchase 280 acres on Lookout Mountain, just west of Laurel Canyon. A large portion of the acreage was subdivided into bungalow lots, most of which had beautiful panoramic views of the city. Two years later, the company widened the winding dirt road to the top of Lookout Mountain where they built the Lookout Mountain Inn. Leased to J.H. Hartwick, the inn consisted of twenty-four rooms, a bandstand and pavillion and had an unobstructed 270 degree view of Los Angeles. It wasn't very long before the Lookout Mountain Inn, whose specialty was chicken dinners, became a popular Hollywood attraction. Because of the steep grade of the twisting road and the lack of engine power of automobiles, guests were forced to spend at least thirty to forty-five minutes driving up the canyon to the inn. However, when they finally arrived, the fine food and breathtaking view seemed to make the long, tedious trip all worthwhile. At about the same time the Lookout Mountain Inn was built, a real estate subdivision, known as Bungalow Land was established at what is now Laurel Canyon Boulevard and Lookout Mountain Avenue. Several lots were graded and sold to buyers who built bungalows and cottages, primarily for use during weekend and summer vacations. In 1912, as a stimulus to Bungalow Land, Mr. Charles Mann, a Real estate operator, and Mr. Richard Shoemaker, engineer, established a trackless trolley service between the Sunset Boulevard terminus of the Pacific Electric trolley line at Laurel Avenue, and the tavern at the junction of Laurel Canyon Road and Lookout Mountain Road. The car had two trolleys, one to a positive and one to a grounded over-head wire, and was able to sway' to either side of the street. For five or six years, the trackless trolley travelled up and dawn Laurel Canyon to meet the half-hour schedule to Los Angeles. It was mechani-cally satisfactory, but insufficiently patronized. It was discon-tinued when the Pacific Electric ceased to run cars between Gardner Street and Laurel Canyon Road, and realty interests failed to support it. On October 26, 1918, disaster struck the Lookout Mountain and Laurel Canyon area when a fire, fanned by strong winds, burned about two hundred acres and totally destroyed the famous Lookout Mountain Inn. For a time, when the great bellows of fire and smoke were rolling high and fast, many residents began preparations to evacuate. Several trucks loaded with furniture and personal belongings made trips down the road, which was covered with fragments of talking- machine records and other small articles that were dropping from the trucks as they rattled down the mountain road. The damage, estimated to be $15,000, and suffered mostly by J.H. Hartwick's Lookout Mountain Inn, was held down by the heroic work of more than two hundred volunteer workers and fifty trained firefighters. Miraculously, nobody was injured. MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY ARRIVES IN HOLLYWOOD In 1907, Col. William Selig, head of the Selig Polyscope Co., sent out a touring company consisting of Director Francis Boggs, six actors and actresses and a cameraman. For the next few weeks the company made movies using the southwest as a "backdrop". They passed through Los Angeles long enough to shoot some scenes for "The Count of Monte Cristo". Unconvinced that Southern California was the paradise they sought, the troupe decided to see what Colorado had to offer. But Colorado's weather was not favorable, and in 1909, the Selig group returned to Los Angeles and went into the movie-producing business on Olive Street. The studio was, at best, a makeshift affair. Boggs rented a vacant Chinese laundry at the corner of Eighth and Olive Streets, converted the building into dressing rooms and an office, and constructed a forty-foot square stage on the adjacent lot. The first movie to be made completely in California was released July 27, 1909 as "The Heart of a Race Tout', starring Tom Santschi and Jean Ward. From these temporary quarters, Col. Selig moved his operation to Edendale, California and began construction of a permanent studio in August of that year. Four years later, he built the Selig Zoo which then became his studio and the location of most of his films. Shortly after Selig's troupe arrived in Los Angeles in 1909, other motion picture companies began to migrate west. The New York Motion Picture Company settled in Edendale in 1909 and later set up shop in the Santa Monica Mountains. Biograph established a studio in Los Angeles, Essanay Company moved to Niles, California, while the Kalem Company settled near Glendale. The distinction of having established the first motion picture studio in Hollywood goes to the Nestor Film Company of Staten Island, New York. In October, 1911, a small group from this film company arrived in Los Angeles to make moving pictures. The personnel of the company included David Horsley, proprietor of the concern; Al Christie, business manager and director of come-dies; Tom Ricketts, dramatic and comedy director; Milton Fahrney, director of westerns; John Nichalaus, chief cameraman and laboratory expert; Thomas Briely, carpenter; Lloyd Briely, his assistant; Walter Prichard, cameraman; Tom Evans, cameraman; Henry Moraine, prop-erties; Arthur Rose and J. Murphy, his assistants. The cast of players included Josephine Ditt (Mrs. Thomas Ricketts), Dorothy Davenport, Mrs. Alice Davenport (her mother), Mrs. Eugene Ford, Miss Victoria Ford, ,Mrs. William H. Fahrney, Jack Conway, Russell Bassett, Harold Lockwood, George Osburns, William Rhyno and Gordon Sackville. While on the train to Los Angeles, they met Mr. Murray Steele, theatrical producer and a friend of Mr. Frank Hoover, who was then in the photographic business at the southeast corner of Hollywood Boulevard and Gower Street. Mr. Steele advised Mr. Horsley to call on Mr. Hoover for information on light conditions in Hollywood. This Mr. Horsley did, and the next day he met Mrs. Rene Blondeau at the site of her tavern on the northwest corner of Sunset Boule-vard and Gower Street. The small roadhouse was suffering from the drought induced by Hollywood's recent liquor ordinance, but the place had immediate appeal. It had a barn, corral, twelve small rooms built along the fence (formerly used by ranchers stopping overnight en route to Los Angeles) and a five-room bungalow. The corral could be used for the horses used in Western pictures; the barn for properties; the small rooms for dressing areas; and the bungalow for utive quarters. Horsley signed a lease for two years at $60 per month rent, with the privilege of purchasing the entire property at the end of that period for $9,000. The rent seemed very high, but it was essential to get started to work immediately. On Monday, a baggage car with motion picture equipment, con-sisting of three cameras, chemicals and minor properties, was run out to Hollywood over the Pacific Electric's railway tracks. By night, everything was unloaded and the company was ready to shoot. On Tuesday, the motion picture industry was started in Hollywood. The first stage consisted of a wooden platform 20 x 40 feet. About fifteen feet above it, on crossed wires, were suspended large mus-lin sheets which were called diffusers. These were used to regulate the intense sunlight. Wardrobes were furnished by the players, and carpenters brought their own tools. Mr. Christie wrote the stories and scenarios, cast the pictures, and directed them; then he became editor and cut in the titles. The schedule was one complete comedy a week. Hollywood's first picture was "Her Indian Hero", in which Miss Dorothy Davenport, later Mrs. Wally Reid, appeared as leading lady. Other roles were taken by Miss Victoria Ford, who later became Mrs. Tom Mix, and Mr. Jack Conway. Mr. Tom Ricketts directed drama, while Mr. Milton Fahrney directed Westerns. In October, the company consisted of twenty-three members and by January, 1912, 123 were employed. In May 1912, Carl Laemmle formed the Universal Film Manufacturing Company, which then acquired the Nestor Film Company as well as the property to the south, across the street. Shortly after their arrival in Hollywood, the Nestor Film Company discovered that they could churn out picture after picture, with few delays from bad weather. Other companies, enduring the erratic climate of the East, marveled at Nestor's steady output and improved photographic quality and came out to Hollywood to learn the secret. Within months, fifteen companies were shooting in, and around, Hollywood. The purpose for the mass migration to Hollywood was two-fold. The first, and most obvious, was the fine year round weather which permitted outdoor moving making in all seasons. However, the wea-ther conditions were almost secondary to the real reason for the great influx of thespians to Hollywood. In the East, the movie companies were engaged in a hurly-burly of suits, injunctions, raids, and riots. Since 1897, Thomas Alva Edison had been suing the independent producers for patent infringement. As the "flickers" supplanted shooting galleries and penny arcades in popularity, the producers licensed by Edison entered into an alliance to safeguard their claims to film profits. In 1909, they formed the Motion Picture Patents Company, soon widely known as the "Trust". It included all of the country's more stable movie makers, and a few of the pirates who managed to turn "legitimate", such as Edison's Vitagraph, Lubin, Selig, Essanay, Kalem, Pathe and Melies. Biograph, bluffing its way, refused to affiliate until later, when it was able to dictate its own terms. The Trust's monopoly was threatened however, by a group of small producers and exhibitors who, having been excluded from the Trust, began to construct or import bootleg equipment to make their pictures in obscure hide-outs. Against these independents the Trust waged one of the most vigorous battles in the history of American industrialism. The pirates fled from cellar, to garret, to roof; from New York to Florida, to Cuba, and finally to California, where the scenery of any part of the world could be easily simulated, and where the climate did not force the halting of filming in the winter time. Trust companies, attracted by the same climate and topography, speedily followed the independents to Southern California. They opened studios, pirates and Trust alike, in Edendale, and to a lesser extent, in Los Angeles, Santa Monica, Culver City, and Glendale. Not until Edendale became overcrowded did producers begin to move west-ward through the low rolling hills to Hollywood, where David Horsley's Nestor Film Company had made its home. The Trust, as it settled in California, formed a new battle front in its war with the independents, but this time the pirates stood their ground and fought back. In the ensuing years, the Trust companies languished, and finally dwindled into oblivion because of their persistent mass production of outmoded short films. The independents, who were once bounded across the continent, now set the pace in a new direction and began to dominate the motion picture industry. MORE MOTION PICTURE COMPANIES COME TO HOLLYWOOD In 1913, in New York, Cecil B. DeMille, a stage actor, director and producer; Jesse Lasky, a theater man; Samuel Goldfish, a glove salesman; and a lawyer named Arthur Friend, got together and formed the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company. They persuaded Dustin Farnum, one of the biggest stars of the day, to star in their first film, "The Squaw Man". In December, 1913, DeMille, Farnum and a small troup went west to begin filming their first movie. They planned to set up production in Flagstaff, Arizona, however, when they arrived, they realized that the scenery was too desolate and unsuitable for their needs. They reboarded the train and continued on to a place they had heard of called Hollywood, where DeMille rented a portion of a small barn at the southeast corner of Vine Street and Selma Avenue. DeMille moved into one side of the barn while the owner of the property, ~1r. Jacob Stern, kept his horses in the other half. Whenever the horses were watered, the water ran through into DeMille's office and the director was forced to wear galoshes or put his feet in the wastebasket. "The Squaw Man" was made on a budget of $15,450.15 and earned more than $225,000. The studio began to expand rapidly and within eighteen months, it occupied the entire block. On July 19, 1916, the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company merged with Adolph Zukor's Famous Players Film Company to form Famous PlayersLasky Corporation. Zukor had assembled many fine thespians, including a young Canadian girl named Gladys Smith, who took the screen name Mary Pickford and later became "America's Sweetheart". Shortly thereafter, Samuel Goldfish, who was Lasky's brother-in-law, left the Famous Players to form a partnership with Edgar Selwyn, and combining syllables from each of their surnames, called the new company Goldwyn Picture Corporation. Later, Goldfish changed his own name to Goldwyn and subsequently was instrumental in the founding of Metro-GoldwynMayer and the Samuel Goldwyn Studios. Famous Players-Lasky Corporation integrated production and distribution by acquiring a national distribution system through a merger with Artcraft Pictures Corporation and Paramount Pictures Corporation. This provided the physical machinery for the distribution of the product. In Hollywood, then virtually open countryside, and under the overall local guidance of Lasky, a number of companies made pictures for Paramount distribution. The studio continued to grow ar.d by 1920, it occupied two square blocks bounded by Vine Street, Sunset Boulevard, El Centro Avenue and Selma Avenue. After leaving the Biograph Film Company, D.W. Griffith began directing movies at the Majestic Reliance Studios at Sunset Boulevard. In 1914, the Triangle Film Corporation was formed, consisting of D.W. Griffith, Thomas Ince, Mack Sennett arid Harry Aitken. Mr. Griffith took over the M~jestic Reliance Studio and immediately renamed it Fine Arts Studio. It was at this studio that Griffith made his spectacular film, "Intolerance" in 1916. Using the vacant property across the street, he erected the film's enormous "Babylon" set which loomed over the residences surrounding the studio. The former Nestor Studio, which had been abandoned by Universal Film Company was taken over by Fred Balshofer for his Quality Pictures Company. His tenancy only lasted one year as the facility changed hands in 1916 to Al Christie's "Christie.Comedies", who continued to occupy the studio until 1930. As the twentieth century grew into its Teens, the film-going public began to demand not only feature productions, but stars, stars, stars. Up in marquee lights went such names as John Bunny, Flora Finch, Lottie Brisco, Grace Cunard, Helen Holmes, Arthur Johnson, Marguerite Clark, Blanche Sweet, Tom Mix, Anita Stewart, Earle Williams, William S. Hart, Charles Ray, Norma and Constance Talmadge, Wallace Reid, Ben Lyon and Bebe Daniels, and the Gish sisters. Angelenos, who had loitered in the old days around the Biograph lot, remember the Gishes: how Dorothy wore a pink ribbon and Lillian wore blue, so that Griffith, their director, could tell them apart. Even though the public was not allowed inside the studio walls, the entrances to the movie factories was a favorite hang-out for fans who just wanted a quick glimpse at their favorite star. Explosive Growth Hollywood, the quiet suburb among the lemon groves within the frostless belt, underwent a wonderous change. Great barn-like studio structures popped up overnight on unrestricted property between fine residences causing some consternation among retired people in search of rest and domestic happiness. The Board of Trade soon made a compromise by sponsoring a zoning ordinance. Producers, directors, and stars rented or built fine residences. New subdivisions were plotted for cottages; the bungalow court be-came popular; hotels and apartment houses soon followed. Mr. Thomas Ince, President of the New York Motion Picture Company, built a fine bungalow home on the half-block to the southeast of Franklin and Tamarind Avenues. Hollywood also experienced phenomenal growth in its population during the first few years after the turn of the century. The popu-lation of 700 in 1903 had increased to 4,000 by 1909. Four years later, this number had swelled to 7,500, primarily because of the motion picture business. Hollywood's growth was best described in the following article which appeared in the Los Angeles Daily Times on January 1, 1913: "Great strides have been taken during the past twelve months at Hollywood, the beautiful city of homes in the foothills north of Los Angeles. This high-class residential community, with its matchless homesites, canyons and glens, has advanced 50 percent in population in the two years since it was annexed to Los Angeles and its building figures have been higher during the past year than at any previous time. The population is now 7,500, a contented gath-ering of families of the middle class, of successful businessmen and retired merchants. Building permits during the past year have reached almost $1,000,000. This amount has chiefly gone into the erection of homes, pretty bungalows and classic mansions. Energetic work on the part of enterprising citizens has assured for Hollywood some of the finest streets and boulevards in the Southwest. Portions of Hollywood Boulevard and Sunset Boulevard, Western Avenue and Cahuenga Avenue have been paved. Two routes from Los Angeles to the sea go through Hollywood. The banking institutions of this beautiful place are prosperous. The deposits of the Hollywood National Bank for Septerber 4, 1912, were $516,505; on September 4, 1911, $389,173. The First National Bank of Hollywood reports deposits of $360,000, and a year ago $256, 000. The Citizens Savings Bank on September 4, had deposits of $199,673, while a year ago but $163,562. The Hollywood Savings Bank deposits amount to $185,000; a year ago $155,000. The classic and commodious Hollywood High School is now completed. Improvements on Lookout Mountain, including the completion of an elegant driveway to the summit and the finishing of Lookout Mountain Inn, added to the attractiveness of Hollywood." Hollywood Boulevard was rapidly lined with stores where the latest styles of merchandise were exhibited. Salaries soared from $3.00 per day to $3,000 a week - all in three or four years. Studios were but laboratories. Scenes were shot all over Hollywood. Private homes were gratuitously used for elopements and domestic dramas. Banks were utilized on holidays, Saturday afternoons, and Sundays for hold-up scenes. Drugstores and other places of business were regularly robbed before the camera. Citizens were halted on the street to augment mob scenes. Streets were roped off for auto-mobile accidents, often hosed down to make autos skid and turn over. An army of almost any nation or age marching down Hollywood Boulevard behind a camera on the rear of a car with one over the hood of the car following, was a common sight. Christies' Bathing Beauties in costumes would rush down the street to their favorite restaurant for a between-acts lunch. Face paint and lipstick were introduced to the rural maiden as the conventional thing. Hollywood boasted a few beautiful girls of its own in 1910, but by 1915, all the nation's fond mothers brought or sent their daughters they thought beautiful or talented. Some of them have become famous, but most fell short in one way or another and joined the extras waiting for a call, while other hopefuls became waitresses in the boulevard restaurants. This perpetual public vaudeville brought the tourists to fill more hotels and restaurants. All tried to find the eating place of their favorite star and often mistook each other for the actress sought, and departed with their curiosity satisfied. Capitalists and real estate owners responded, and the city grew; $700 lemon acreage became $10,000 per acre subdivision property

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Glen Hollywood Hotel
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Glen Hollywood Hotel and Yucca and Ivar Aves.
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Hollywood Hotel
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Hollywood Hotel
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Hollywood History 1900 - 1910Glen Hollywood Hotel and Yucca and Ivar Aves.
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Prospect Ave. and  Gower St.
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Prospect Ave. and Wilcox Ave.
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Hollywood Cemetery
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Rudolph Valentino's coffin being carried into the Hollywood Cemetery
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Hollywood History 1900 - 1910Prospect Ave. and Wilcox Ave.
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Hollywood History 1900 - 1910Hollywood Cemetery
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Hollywood History 1900 - 1910Rudolph Valentino's coffin being carried into the Hollywood Cemetery
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Whitley Heights
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Hollywood's City Hall
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Filming at Christie Studios
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C.B. DeMille filming at his studio
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Hollywood History 1900 - 1910Hollywood's City Hall
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Hollywood History 1900 - 1910Filming at Christie Studios
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Hollywood History 1900 - 1910C.B. DeMille filming at his studio
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